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How Students in 12 Countries Are Taught About 9/11



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Venezuela

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Iraq

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United Kingdom

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South Korea

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France

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Brazil

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Germany

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United States

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Australia

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Russia

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Pakistan

Twelve teenagers born after 9/11 told us what they have learned about the event and its aftermath — and what has been left out.

For those born after Sept. 11, 2001, there are no memories of that dark day to shape their views. There is only education — formal, and informal.

With the terrorist attack and the wars that followed having entered the realm of history, we sought to understand how these events are being taught. What is stressed? What is overlooked?

We examined textbooks from all over and talked with educators. But mostly we wanted to hear directly from young people, and so we interviewed students born after the attacks in 12 countries.

Their voices offered only a hint of the diversity of instruction on Sept. 11 worldwide, but their impressions and experiences were striking.

From Moscow to Manhattan, from Karachi to Caracas, from Berlin to Baghdad, students have come away with very different perspectives on terrorism, Islam, war and American power.

If there is a consensus, it can be found in what students told us their education has been missing: depth.

They want to know more.

What did you learn about 9/11 in school?

The lessons taught about 9/11 reflect national agendas — if it is taught at all.
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I’m actually certain we’ve never studied it.>I’m actually certain we’ve never studied it.
Polina Russia

These types of discussions don’t take place in our schools.>These types of discussions don’t take place in our schools.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

In my primary school, they briefly mentioned it.>In my primary school, they briefly mentioned it.
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

The teacher had slides of the planes hitting the twin towers.>The teacher had slides of the planes hitting the twin towers.
Lucas Villar Brazil

We were supposed to watch a documentary about 9/11>We were supposed to watch a documentary about 9/11
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

in high school, but in the end they never played it.>in high school, but in the end they never played it.
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

We talked about 9/11 being the first event that>We talked about 9/11 being the first event that
Noémi Grette France

showed that terrorism existed, and that it was>showed that terrorism existed, and that it was
Noémi Grette France

a threat to the whole world.>a threat to the whole world.
Noémi Grette France

It was taught separately as an example>It was taught separately as an example
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

of international conflict post-globalization.>of international conflict post-globalization.
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

While talking to my history professor,>While talking to my history professor,
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

he told me it happened to threaten the U.S.>he told me it happened to threaten the U.S.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

And that’s what resulted in the U.S. occupying Iraq.>And that’s what resulted in the U.S. occupying Iraq.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

In seventh grade, we were given a project>In seventh grade, we were given a project
Karen Zhang United States

to interview a family member who was personally>to interview a family member who was personally
Karen Zhang United States

affected by 9/11.>affected by 9/11.
Karen Zhang United States

That’s when I started to have a lot deeper connection>That’s when I started to have a lot deeper connection
Karen Zhang United States

to the event.>to the event.
Karen Zhang United States

Schools around the world vary widely in their approach to teaching 9/11, if they teach it at all.

Biz Herman, a doctoral candidate in political science at the University of California, Berkeley, has collected 850 textbooks from 90 countries. We worked with Ms. Herman to examine many of the textbooks commonly used by middle and high school students and found that Iran, Venezuela, Egypt, Syria and Mozambique are a few of the countries that do not mention the attack.

In New York and elsewhere in the United States, the Sept. 11 curriculum has been overtly personal and emotional. Students have been asked by their teachers to explore the experiences of their own families.

But at a remove from the bloodshed, and with attitudes of varying warmth toward the U.S., other countries handle the subject with their own nationalistic tilt.

In England, descriptions of the attack appear in one popular textbook in a section titled “Terrorist Groups in Action,” which also explores how the British government handled the Irish Republican Army. Spanish, French and Russian textbooks discuss Sept. 11 alongside terrorist attacks that struck their own citizens.













Textbooks from (clockwise from top left) Germany, Russia, South Africa, the U.S., Sweden and South Korea. Source: Biz Herman, University of California, Berkeley

Textbooks from (clockwise from top left) Germany, Russia, South Korea, the U.S., Sweden and South Africa. Source: Biz Herman, University of California, Berkeley

But some countries teach students that the events of that day offer a lesson, or perhaps a warning, for the world’s powers.

South Korean and Indian students learn that the strikes on the World Trade Center in New York and on Washington were a consequence of globalization. A Pakistani textbook describes the attack, which left almost 3,000 dead, as an “incident,” and dwells on the risks that come from American hegemony.

Striking an even sharper note, a textbook of Modern and Contemporary World History from China includes a photo of the twin towers in flames near a section on geopolitics. “No one power can dominate the world on its own,” it says.

“What are textbooks and what are they for?” Ms. Herman asks. “It would seem simple: that it’s for educating kids. But it’s actually for setting national agendas, for sharing a particular narrative. And sometimes it’s for educating kids.”

How did you first learn about 9/11?

Horrific images endure. But what came next is often poorly explained.
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I don’t remember precisely how old I was,>I don’t remember precisely how old I was,
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

but I remember I saw it on a news report.>but I remember I saw it on a news report.
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

Buildings being bombed, like the terrorist attacks>Buildings being bombed, like the terrorist attacks
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

and stuff like that. I never — I was feeling really astonished.>and stuff like that. I never — I was feeling really astonished.
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

It was a right-wing Pakistani newspaper>It was a right-wing Pakistani newspaper
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

that came to our house regularly.>that came to our house regularly.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

The headline was,>The headline was,
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

“After the 9/11 attack, the U.S. downfall has begun.”>“After the 9/11 attack, the U.S. downfall has begun.”
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

It was a documentary on television.>It was a documentary on television.
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

I felt sad>I felt sad
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

hearing from so many people who had seen their colleagues die>hearing from so many people who had seen their colleagues die
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

because they could not get out in time.>because they could not get out in time.
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

I was like, watching true crime videos excessively>I was like, watching true crime videos excessively
Polina Russia

on YouTube when I saw photos and videos of people>on YouTube when I saw photos and videos of people
Polina Russia

jumping out.>jumping out.
Polina Russia

I think that’s why there are conspiracy theories>I think that’s why there are conspiracy theories
Noémi Grette France

around this.>around this.
Noémi Grette France

It’s because it’s so shocking.>It’s because it’s so shocking.
Noémi Grette France

It’s something that is so threatening and frightening>It’s something that is so threatening and frightening
Noémi Grette France

that when you see it, you just can’t believe it happened.>that when you see it, you just can’t believe it happened.
Noémi Grette France

Why was it so easy to hijack four planes?>Why was it so easy to hijack four planes?
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

How did they pass security checks?>How did they pass security checks?
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

Did they have prior intelligence?>Did they have prior intelligence?
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

How did such a big terror incident>How did such a big terror incident
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

take place in such a safe country?>take place in such a safe country?
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

I still don’t have the answer for that.>I still don’t have the answer for that.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

Many people born after Sept. 11 learn about that day at a young age, but how it happens varies. Some see documentaries about the attack, but others stumble across it on YouTube or hear a chance remark that sets them on a path to learn more.

Many of the students we interviewed said they had first heard 9/11 referred to obliquely, as if the adults talking had forgotten that they were not alive when the attack happened. When asked, the adults would give them a basic rundown of the facts — the hijacked planes, the toppled buildings, the number killed — without much context.

What they remember are the images.

“When you see the archival images, you’re like: How is this possible?” said Noémi Grette, 18, a recent high school graduate from Bordeaux in France.

But the photos and video leave so much unanswered, say young people like Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas, 16, a 10th grader in Ciudad Los Teques, Venezuela.

“The questions that I have are: First, why was it so easy for the Taliban to hijack four airplanes from the U.S.?” she said, mixing up the Taliban with their allies in Al Qaeda. “And the other question that I have is: Why did that war really start between the U.S. and Afghanistan?”

What impact did 9/11 have on your world?

For some teenagers, the American response to 9/11 matters as much as the attacks
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It had such a big impact on the United States,>It had such a big impact on the United States,
Karen Zhang United States

and I feel like it’s an event that you can’t really>and I feel like it’s an event that you can’t really
Karen Zhang United States

accept just happened, since it was clearly>accept just happened, since it was clearly
Karen Zhang United States

purposefully done. It wasn’t an accident.>purposefully done. It wasn’t an accident.
Karen Zhang United States

It was a moment where everyone realized>It was a moment where everyone realized
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

that there are, of course, bad people>that there are, of course, bad people
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

and that we are not as safe as we thought we were.>and that we are not as safe as we thought we were.
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

The world didn’t become a better place.>The world didn’t become a better place.
Lucas Villar Brazil

It just got worse.>It just got worse.
Lucas Villar Brazil

When the war in Afghanistan started,>When the war in Afghanistan started,
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

thousands of people were forced to migrate toward Pakistan.>thousands of people were forced to migrate toward Pakistan.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

We had to leave our ancestral area, our home,>We had to leave our ancestral area, our home,
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

our land and our property, and we had to migrate>our land and our property, and we had to migrate
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

to the city.>to the city.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

It has sparked national conflicts between people.>It has sparked national conflicts between people.
Polina Russia

I don’t mean, like, the war itself,>I don’t mean, like, the war itself,
Polina Russia

but just the hatred.>but just the hatred.
Polina Russia

Because people are frightened of terrorist attacks,>Because people are frightened of terrorist attacks,
Noémi Grette France

they tend to stigmatize more Muslim people.>they tend to stigmatize more Muslim people.
Noémi Grette France

I think a lot of people, when they think of terrorism,>I think a lot of people, when they think of terrorism,
Felix Tonkin Australia

they think of Islamic terrorism.>they think of Islamic terrorism.
Felix Tonkin Australia

It’s really sort of painted a sort of a boogeyman, really,>It’s really sort of painted a sort of a boogeyman, really,
Felix Tonkin Australia

that a lot of people like to look at.>that a lot of people like to look at.
Felix Tonkin Australia

When Saddam Hussein fell, the state, and its security institutions, fell.>When Saddam Hussein fell, the state, and its security institutions, fell.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

And that motivated extremists to roam the streets,>And that motivated extremists to roam the streets,
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

and to threaten people and kill them.>and to threaten people and kill them.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

The death of my father, and many innocent civilians,>The death of my father, and many innocent civilians,
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

is directly tied to the Iraq war.>is directly tied to the Iraq war.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

When the post-9/11 generation assesses the impact of the attack on their lives, they often point to what they can see: the long waits to get through airport security, the concrete bollards at the front of public squares to block a potential truck bomb.

But for many students, the lines between that day and the wars that followed are something of a blur, like a thunderstorm with clouds that have merged.

The ramifications can be deeply personal.

Faisal Rehman, 18, said that America’s invasion of Afghanistan led Taliban fighters to safe houses in the border region of Pakistan where his family lived, forcing them to leave for Karachi. Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi, an 18-year-old high school senior in Baghdad, said that if not for the events of Sept. 11, “Saddam Hussein would have still been among us.”

“Regime change” ended dictatorship, he noted, but it also produced more terrorism inside Iraq. His father was shot and killed in 2005 when Mujtaba was just a toddler.

“He was washing his car, which was a big car,” he said. “I was standing next to him.”

For others, like Dorea Nengese, 18, who recently graduated from an East London high school filled with students whose families migrated from Afghanistan, Iran and other Middle Eastern countries, Sept. 11 will be forever remembered as a spark for anti-Islamic prejudice and intense debates about whose narratives should be given prominence.

Why, she asked, are students “expected to know everything about America” without learning about how global affairs are viewed by people from other countries?

What did these events teach you about America?

Students aware of 9/11 and what followed are often deeply skeptical of American motives.
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The response after 9/11 told me about the U.S.>The response after 9/11 told me about the U.S.
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

that they kind of want justice,>that they kind of want justice,
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

but in a really weird way, kind of,>but in a really weird way, kind of,
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

because it’s not really justice to bomb a country.>because it’s not really justice to bomb a country.
Jelena Marie Bielke Germany

Public opinion here is that after 9/11,>Public opinion here is that after 9/11,
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

America launched a war against the Taliban>America launched a war against the Taliban
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

and terrorists as cover for the occupation of Afghanistan.>and terrorists as cover for the occupation of Afghanistan.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

I really vividly remember I think it was Bush —>I really vividly remember I think it was Bush —
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

I think it was that president —>I think it was that president —
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

him doing all these speeches and saying>him doing all these speeches and saying
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

very emotive kind of slogans like,>very emotive kind of slogans like,
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

“You’re with us or against us.”>“You’re with us or against us.”
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

And the whole war on terror.>And the whole war on terror.
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

As if 9/11 justified everything else that happened.>As if 9/11 justified everything else that happened.
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

Perhaps 9/11 was the perfect pretext for>Perhaps 9/11 was the perfect pretext for
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

George W. Bush to accomplish two goals at once:>George W. Bush to accomplish two goals at once:
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

He brought down the Taliban in Afghanistan>He brought down the Taliban in Afghanistan
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

and then went to Iraq to bring down Saddam Hussein.>and then went to Iraq to bring down Saddam Hussein.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

My history teacher always taught us that>My history teacher always taught us that
Noémi Grette France

America has this “peace guard” role>America has this “peace guard” role
Noémi Grette France

in the world.>in the world.
Noémi Grette France

I think that the U.S. had no choice but to retaliate>I think that the U.S. had no choice but to retaliate
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

because the attack took such a huge toll>because the attack took such a huge toll
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

on its people.>on its people.
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

But I also think the U.S. was too aggressive>But I also think the U.S. was too aggressive
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.>during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

For many Americans, remembering Sept. 11 means grappling with the legacy of trauma. With a more international perspective, young people elsewhere often find themselves asking how such a powerful country could be so vulnerable — and what lay at the root of its response at home and around the world.

Some students said American power should still be seen as a force for good. Xolisa Nohenda, 17, a 12th grader in Johannesburg, South Africa, said most of her peers believed that the U.S. “plays a big role in defending people.”

But for many, it has become common to question American motives.

In almost any lesson that touches on the United States, textbooks from many countries emphasize American military might. Some also suggest that the U.S. attacked Afghanistan and Iraq to obtain oil or other natural resources.

Even teenagers who were not taught from those texts seem to have absorbed a sense of deep skepticism.

“I don’t know a lot about the war between Iraq and the U.S. but I do know that they, I think, fought about oil, and there was a lot of money involved,” said Jelena Marie Bielke, 16, a high school junior in Berlin. “And the U.S. wanted to get the oil.”

The American response to Sept. 11, she said, showed that the Americans “kind of want justice, but in a really weird way — because it’s not really justice to bomb a country.”

What’s gone wrong with 9/11 education?

Students blame outdated curricula, fear and political agendas for ignoring 9/11 in schools.
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Our teachers were anticipating that we’d known about 9/11,>Our teachers were anticipating that we’d known about 9/11,
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

because America — it’s like, how could>because America — it’s like, how could
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

you not know?>you not know?
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

There’s a general consensus that people know>There’s a general consensus that people know
Karen Zhang United States

what the event was, especially because>what the event was, especially because
Karen Zhang United States

we live in New York City and many of our parents>we live in New York City and many of our parents
Karen Zhang United States

had already lived through it.>had already lived through it.
Karen Zhang United States

We want to focus more on our country’s history,>We want to focus more on our country’s history,
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

on our continent’s history, and it’s a lot.>on our continent’s history, and it’s a lot.
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

They didn’t want to go into the topic because>They didn’t want to go into the topic because
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

they said that it was too complicated to explain to us.>they said that it was too complicated to explain to us.
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

I remember asking my teacher,>I remember asking my teacher,
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

“Sir, I read about 9/11 in the newspaper —>“Sir, I read about 9/11 in the newspaper —
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

can you tell me more about it?”>can you tell me more about it?”
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

He said firmly,>He said firmly,
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

“Son, these wars are political.>“Son, these wars are political.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

We don’t learn such things in school.”>We don’t learn such things in school.”
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

For a lot of people who might be teaching 9/11,>For a lot of people who might be teaching 9/11,
Felix Tonkin Australia

they don’t really view it as history.>they don’t really view it as history.
Felix Tonkin Australia

They view it as a contemporary event>They view it as a contemporary event
Felix Tonkin Australia

that happened in their lifetime.>that happened in their lifetime.
Felix Tonkin Australia

They suffered the consequences of 9/11.>They suffered the consequences of 9/11.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

When something hurts you,>When something hurts you,
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

or crushes you from the inside,>or crushes you from the inside,
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

then of course you don’t talk about it.>then of course you don’t talk about it.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

We study wars. What is not scary>We study wars. What is not scary
Polina Russia

about a war that is very scary about>about a war that is very scary about
Polina Russia

a terrorist attack that they won’t talk about?>a terrorist attack that they won’t talk about?
Polina Russia

And sort of, like, I think it’s a very>And sort of, like, I think it’s a very
Polina Russia

controversial question to be honest.>controversial question to be honest.
Polina Russia

Many of the students we interviewed offered sharp insights on why their elders do not teach about Sept. 11 with more context and rigor. Some said schools are always slow to adapt, sticking with outdated textbooks that can take years to update.

“I think it’s time for us to change this educational system and, I don’t know, try to focus on something more forward looking,” said Lucas Villar, 18, a high school senior in Rio de Janeiro.

Other students blamed politics and discomfort with trauma.

“I think sometimes some things are not talked about, because maybe the government failed to control it,” said Polina, 19, a university student in Russia, who asked that her surname not be used to protect her privacy and avoid trouble with the authorities.

“Like, I don’t want to get political, but I really do think that some things are not included just because it might sabotage the general picture of the country. Maybe kids would not feel safe in their country, or it might trigger some sort of thought, some negative thinking about their safety, and what they have to go through. Maybe some phobias.”

Felix Tonkin, 17, a 12th grader in Sydney, said some countries (including Australia) may be hindered by a sense of shame about mistakes they made in Afghanistan and Iraq.

“That’s a hard thing to teach, absolutely,” he said. “But I think it’s an important thing to teach as well.”

In Karachi, Mr. Rehman said he had once asked his teacher to explain and got this reply: “Son, these wars are political. We don’t learn such things in school. You can learn about them later in life.”

What grade would you give your education?

Students want a more nuanced, contemporary and international education.
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A D-plus — because I think that they’ve>A D-plus — because I think that they’ve
Felix Tonkin Australia

touched on it briefly, they mentioned it.>touched on it briefly, they mentioned it.
Felix Tonkin Australia

But I think that they could go a lot deeper>But I think that they could go a lot deeper
Felix Tonkin Australia

and I think there’s a lot more that they could teach us.>and I think there’s a lot more that they could teach us.
Felix Tonkin Australia

I would give it a D.>I would give it a D.
Faisal Rehman Pakistan

I’m looking at a B-minus here.>I’m looking at a B-minus here.
Xolisa Nohenda South Africa

An F.>An F.
Polina Russia

I don’t remember discussing it in class ever.>I don’t remember discussing it in class ever.
Polina Russia

I give them 2 out of 10.>I give them 2 out of 10.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

A 2.5.>A 2.5.
Lucas Villar Brazil

I’d give them 50 points out of 100.>I’d give them 50 points out of 100.
Kim Donghyeon South Korea

I would give them a 3 out of 20.>I would give them a 3 out of 20.
Ariadna Clareth Sánchez Rojas Venezuela

Maybe a C or a D … plus!>Maybe a C or a D … plus!
Noémi Grette France

I’d give them an A.>I’d give them an A.
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

It almost felt like a bit of a privilege to learn about>It almost felt like a bit of a privilege to learn about
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

foreign countries and the history that happened>foreign countries and the history that happened
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

in other parts of the world.>in other parts of the world.
Dorea Nengese United Kingdom

Iraqis have a big role in writing the history of these events.>Iraqis have a big role in writing the history of these events.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

They experienced many events that can be compared to 9/11 —>They experienced many events that can be compared to 9/11 —
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

it just happened in a different way.>it just happened in a different way.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

But Iraqis also survived war and destruction.>But Iraqis also survived war and destruction.
Mujtaba Ali al-Saadi Iraq

I would try to explain in a better way why 9/11 happened.>I would try to explain in a better way why 9/11 happened.
Lucas Villar Brazil

Because I think that for most of us —>Because I think that for most of us —
Lucas Villar Brazil

it doesn’t make any sense.>it doesn’t make any sense.
Lucas Villar Brazil

Across the board, students born soon after Sept. 11, 2001, told us they longed for their teachers and school systems to embark on a deeper dive into the subject, from the historical context leading up to the attack all the way through the long-term impact.

For many, 9/11 has come to symbolize one of the flaws of modern education: an unwillingness to look more closely at relatively recent events that shape the present.

“I feel lost, because sometimes I watch the news and I don’t understand anything that’s happening,” said Mr. Villar, in Brazil. “And I think the school could help me with that, having more classes about what’s going on now, and not just what happened 300 years ago.”

Several students also said they needed to know more about Sept. 11 because one day they may be called upon to explain the era of terror to their children.

“I feel like I do have responsibility to not only learn about just what happened, but I feel like also just the long lasting legacy of it, and just all the effects and aftermath,” said Karen Zhang, 17, a rising senior at Stuyvesant High School in Manhattan.

More specifically, she said that along with Sept. 11, “there should be a bit more of, I think, the history of the U.S. in the Middle East.”

Mr. al-Saadi, in Baghdad, said he could understand why so few teachers wanted to teach about 9/11. “When something hurts you, or crushes you from the inside, then of course you don’t talk about it,” he said.

And yet, he and many others argue, that trauma is exactly why the subject must be taught. To process the pain. To learn from the failures. To help the next generation do better than the last.

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